Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority
During the ESTP implementation phase (2007-2010), the TVET division was integrated in the Ministry of Human Resources, Youth and Sports (MHRYS). In 2011, this division became Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority (TVET Authority) in the Ministry of Education. Established by the President’s office, TVETA has the overall responsibility for the development and management of a comprehensive, demand oriented and partnership based TVET system.
The world of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is unique in the field of education in the Maldives. TVET prepares learners for employment and then helps them to continue their education part time. The tradition of education is to fill the first 22 years of life with learning designed around growth and maturation. TVET is based on young people mastering skills and the concepts behind those skills, over a working lifetime to get a first job and then remain employable as technology and society change.
TVETA is the leading partner in the development of the Maldivian skilled workforce with world class competence and positive work values
TVETA provides Technical and Vocational Education and Training Services to meet labour market demands, industrial/commercial stakeholders training requirements and personal development needs.
The Goal and Value Statement:
TVETA is to ensure that young people can find and follow satisfying careers in an economy that has a continuing supply of new workers with skills and attitude required by industry and business.
- To establish and formalize a mechanism under the TVET system to focus technical education and skills development on meeting the changing demands for a skill workforce
- Promote and strengthen the quality of technical education and skills development programs to attain Maldives Qualification Authority (MQA) accredited National Certificate. TVETA would prepare Occupational Competency Standards, Monitor and evaluate different technical and vocational training conducted by training providers and also recognize and encourage the complementary roles of public and private institutions in technical education and skills development
- To establish a trade testing mechanism whereby employees in an occupation which is officially recognized as craft or artisan in nature would be recognized from the TVET system.
- To establish an Apprenticeship system in Maldives, whereby integrate necessary policies and procedures
Employment Sector Councils (ESCs):
ESCs are intended to be a contributor to a demand driven Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System. They will identify the needs of employers for skills at all levels within the sector.
There are five ESCs established in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority (TVETA). They are:
- Tourism Sector
- Fisheries and Agriculture Sector
- Transport Sector (public and private education, health)
- Social Sector
- Construction Sector
- to provide a sustainable mechanism to accurately define the immediate and future demand for human resources.
- to provide a sustainable mechanism to represent enterprise and provide the necessary input from the enterprise partners in the TVET system.
- to ensure that all training standards are endorsed by Enterprise and represent the requirements of Enterprise for employment at each job level within the national Qualifications framework.
- to reduce the gap between employer demand for qualified workers and the supply of appropriately qualified Maldivian labour.
- to give enterprise a sense of ownership in the TVET system and increase their involvement in training.
- Increase efficiency and effectiveness of investment in employment oriented training.
- Provide feedback to Ministry of Education on the impact of the TVET structure.
- Identify policy issues impacting on labour market efficiency and to engage in a dialogue with the Ministry of Education to achieve resolution.
- Assist in developing competency standards that will enable the MQA, training providers, employers and individuals to describe the knowledge skills and attitudes to effectively function in various sector specific occupations.
- Recommend training and personnel development that will enhance the economic and financial efficiency of the sector.
- Provide gender disaggregated data on categories and demand for employment for input into the LMIS.
- Provide information that will provide greater employment awareness and participation of women through improved social marketing and career guidance initiatives.
ESC will recommend skilled tradesmen in the enterprise sector who might become skills assessors for the once or twice a year evaluation of trainees in their mastery of the competency standards endorsed by the ESC. Evaluators will be paid a daily rate to reimburse them (or their employer) for the days and travel required.
Tourism is what the Maldives is known all over the world for. It is the most important sector in the Maldivian economy, making the largest contribution to the wealth of the nation.
Resorts offer the most popular vehicle for tourism in the Maldives. Presently more than 100 resorts, operate in the Maldives in addition to a few hotels, guesthouses and cruise vessels. Each resort occupies its own island and includes the necessary infrastructure for guests and workers: power plant, water desalinization plant, workers housing quarters, external communication. Tourism in the Maldives is centered on beaches, scuba diving, snorkeling, and more recently, eco-tourism.
Although the Tourism Sector is the largest provider of jobs, not all Maldivians take up these jobs. Many of these jobs have to be given to workers from neighboring countries.
Fisheries and Agriculture
In the history of work in the Maldives, fishing has been one of the oldest occupations of this country. Fisheries activities still account for a significant portion of local employment. The majority of fishery workers live in the Atolls. In addition to fishers, others are involved in fish processing activities. This includes:
- Preserving fish by freezing
- Preserving fish by canning
- Preparing chilled/ fresh and salted/ dried fish for the export markets.
Fish exports were $69.1 million in 2003 which was an increase of 41% from 2002. Maldives is looking at further development of its fisheries sector, to increase exports and value added production. To support these developments larger sized boats and new technologies to improve fish preservation and storage are being explored.
The Maldives is divided into four fishing zones running north to south. Two of these zones are controlled by the Maldives Industries Fisheries Company (MIFCO). The other two zones were privatized. Within each privatized zone, two zone operators are licensed to collect, process and export tuna. The private companies have initially tended to concentrate on frozen fish exports, but intend to expand into more processed exports. Value-added facilities are now under development in both MIFCO and privatized zones to expand freezing, canning, drying and other processing capabilities.
Agriculture in the Maldives is not an easy area of work given the climate and soil conditions. However there are Maldivian agriculturists who are exceptionally successful.
The main crops in the Maldives are coconuts. Vegetables such as chillies (pungent bell varieties), cucurbits, citrus, and other tropical fruits and vegetables are also grown. The agriculture has been experiencing very slow growth and development.
Transport is one of the biggest challenges in the Maldives. Islands are remotely located and moving between islands means travelling across water. There are a few islands that are big enough to be linked via bridges and causeways. On these islands a land transport service may be viable. By and large, the Transport Sector is dominated by maritime and air transportation. Male, the country’s commercial and financial center, has a well developed sea port and the country’s only international airport for passenger traffic.
Sea transport service is in demand in almost every atoll. At present there are hardly any regular transport links to remote atolls and islands. The existing regular ferry services are provided between Male’ and close by islands. However, the frequency of these services need to be improved.
As tourism and trade have expanded, so too have transportation options among the resort islands. In addition to water taxis and scheduled sea vessel transportation services, light aircraft are available for hire in the tourist sector. Inter-island transportation service for the island populations is now more frequent and less expensive, though still inadequate.
Societies are searching for innovative and efficient ways to make socially important services in health, education, social services, environment, and community development, available to its members. The Social Sector is not commercially oriented. In other words services in this sector are not established with the primary intention of making a profit. Instead, this sector provides essential services to the community. Some of the issues that the Social Sector addresses are poverty, employment, women and children, education, family welfare, social problems, health and empowerment of disadvantaged groups.
The specific areas that the Social Sector addresses in the Maldives are:
- Education, vocational training and higher education
- Health care
- Social Security
- Youth Development
- Gender, child protection and family services
- Narcotics control
- Sports, leisure and recreation
- Arts, culture and religious affairs
There are various regulations relating to the design and construction of buildings and land use. The Ministry of Construction and Public Infrastructure monitors the implementation of the building code and carries out the registration of professionals in the construction sector including engineers and designers. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development issues and monitors the building permits, which specifies building heights, ventilation and other building requirements. Presently there are 40 to 50 construction firms who take up construction related projects in the Maldives. The Construction Sector Council brings the government and private operators together in order to ensure that the best services are delivered.
Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the Construction Sector in response to the expansion in the tourism industry and increased demand for housing. The massive development programme in Hulhumale is an example of the critical role that will be played by the Construction Sector.
Once the Employment Sector Council has identified an employment field requiring more skilled workers, a Technical Panel of experts in this area will be called: to develop, or cause to be developed competency standards in their area of specific expertise or to receive, modify and endorse existing competency standards in this area.
As an example in Chef training, it is not the owners of restaurants or resorts who can set the standards, but Chefs who practice the profession. So senior managers can identify where and what is required in an industry but they need the input of practioners who understand the day to day requirements of a job to set the competency standards. The group of Chefs doing this work would be called a Technical Panel
Each Technical Panel will have at least 6 members all of whom are skilled practitioners of the job or job cluster for which the standards are being prepared or validated.